The measures were re-implemented due to a spike in COVID-19 cases.
Footage posted on social media shows protesters running away from heavily armed police officers and vehicles in the Belgian capital.
Some protesters responded by smashing the windows of police vehicles.
Police estimated over 35,000 people participated in the march.
As of Sunday, Belgium recorded 26,568 total deaths due to coronavirus with 1,581,500 total cases since the start of the pandemic, according to a Reuters tally.