French authorities deployed a heavy police presence in the capital as several hundred demonstrators gathered at two squares in Paris for authorised marches.
One march set off without incident but the other was delayed after police used tear gas to disperse protestors who left the designated route and some of whom set fire to waste bins and a car.
The authorities had banned protests in a central zone including the Champs-Elysees, the scene of rioting at the height of the yellow vest movement nearly two years ago when anger over fuel taxes and President Emmanuel Macron's style of rule brought hundreds of thousands onto the streets across France.
Police said they had made 154 arrests by 1 pm local time (1100 GMT).
The renewed mobilisation of the yellow vests, named after motorists' high-visibility jackets that became the symbol of the movement, comes as France is grappling with a resurgence in cases of the novel coronavirus.
Police called on Saturday's demonstrators to respect sanitary measures in Paris, which is among France's coronavirus "red zones" and where it is compulsory to wear a face mask in the street everywhere in the city.