One half of the prize, worth $1.15 million, goes in equal parts to Manabe and Hasselmann for modeling earth’s climate and reliably predicting global warming.
The other half goes to Parisi for discovering "hidden rules" behind seemingly random movements and swirls in gases or liquids.
"Complex systems are characterized by randomness and disorder and are difficult to understand," the Swedish Academy of Sciences said in a statement. "This year’s Prize recognizes new methods for describing them and predicting their long-term behavior."
Manabe is now at Princeton University in the United States, Hasselmann at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, and Parisi at Sapienza University of Rome.
As last year, there will be no banquet in Stockholm because of the global health crisis. The laureates will receive their medals and diplomas in their home countries.