The dispute has its roots in a knife attack outside a French school on October 16 in which a man of Chechen origin beheaded Samuel Paty, a teacher who had shown pupils the cartoons in a civics lesson on freedom of speech.
France has allowed displays of the cartoons, which are considered blasphemous by Muslims.
Macron paid tribute to Paty, describing him as a "quiet hero" dedicated to instilling the democratic values of the French Republic in his pupils.
Protesters in India carried flags and posters reading "France+Macron disaster for mankind".
Meanwhile, demonstrators in Bangladesh burned an effigy of French President Emmanuel Macron on Wednesday (October 28) in the capital Dhaka as anger seethed over the cartoons.
France's foreign ministry on Tuesday (October 27) issued safety advice to French citizens in Indonesia, Turkey, Bangladesh, Iraq and Mauritania, advising them to exercise caution as calls to boycott French products grow in Muslim-majority countries.