"Killing so many people and then just walking away? No, we can't accept that and the world can't accept it," said victim relative Hans De Borst before the hearing.
The flight carrying his daughter between Amsterdam and Kuala Lumpur crashed in a field in territory held by pro-Russian separatists fighting against Ukrainian forces, after being shot down with what international investigators say was a Russian surface-to-air missile.
Three Russians and a Ukrainian citizen, all suspected of having key roles in the separatist forces, are on trial for murder. Moscow has refused to extradite those in Russia.
One of the Russians is mounting a defense from abroad and denies blame, while the others have not appointed lawyers and are not participating.
After a year of mostly procedural hearings, judges began summarizing the evidence gathered by investigators in the case, and will potentially be calling witnesses.