India paceman Ishant Sharma helped skittle out Bangladesh for 106 and Virat Kohli put the hosts in the lead on day one of the first day-night Test for both the teams.
Ishant returned figures of 5-22 in India's pink-ball debut to bowl out the tourists in the second session after they elected to bat first in Kolkata.
The home side's batsmen then got going with the hosts reaching 174 for three at stumps, leading by 68 runs. Kohli, on 59, and Ajinkya Rahane, on 23, were at the crease.
The captain put on 94 runs with Cheteshwar Pujara for the third wicket after the early fall of openers Mayank Agarwal, for 14, and Rohit Sharma, for 21.
Pujara completed his half-century before falling to paceman Ebadat Hossian, who took two wickets, for 55.
But Kohli stayed firm to raise his 23rd Test fifty as he played the pink ball with ease as he hit eight boundaries in front of a sell-out crowd at Eden Gardens.
Bangladesh were dealt a double blow after Liton Das and Nayeem Hasan pulled out following hits on the helmet from paceman Mohammed Shami. Mehedy Hasan and Taijul Islam returned to the XI as substitutes.
The International Cricket Council (ICC) approved the use of concussion substitutes for all internationals from August. This is the first time two subs have been used in a Test.
Mehidy, who made eight while batting, was replacing a batsman, so he can only bat. Taijul is a sub for an off-spinner, so he can bowl and bat.
Taijul bowled eight overs off his left-arm spin.
India and Bangladesh have joined the pink-ball party four years after the first day-night Test in Adelaide between Australia and New Zealand.
Ishant struck first to get Imrul Kayes trapped lbw for four, and the left-handed opener wasted a review with replays showing the ball would have hit leg stump.
Umesh Yadav joined forces in his second spell to send back skipper Mominul Haque, caught superbly by Rohit at second slip for nought, before bowling Mohammed Mithun two balls later.
Kolkata-based Shami, part of India's deadly pace trio in the series, received the loudest cheers after getting Mushfiqur Rahim bowled for nought.
Opener Shadman Islam top-scored with 29 in an innings that witnessed four batsmen getting out for zero. Liton was retired hurt on 24.
India's cricket chief Sourav Ganguly has put on a grand show at Eden Gardens, which is sold out for the first four days of the match.
Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina was in attendance along with a host of cricketing greats including batting icon Sachin Tendulkar.