A pile of sandals and bloodstained carpets remained at at the mosque on Saturday (October 9) a day after the attack.
Stunned family members gathered around wooden coffins waiting for burial.
The latest attack was the third this week on a religious institution.
Islamic State claimed responsibility for an attack that state-run Bakhtar news agency said had killed 46 people and wounded 143.
Two health officials told Reuters the death toll could be between 70 and 80.
The blast, which the United Nations' mission in Afghanistan called part of a disturbing pattern of violence, follows others in recent days at a mosque in Kabul and a religious school in the eastern province of Khost.
There have been similar attacks in recent weeks, some of which have also been claimed by Islamic State, whose fighters are Sunni Muslims.