Factbox: Court battles shape presidential election, as U.S. Supreme Court hands Democrats win

·5-min read

By Jan Wolfe

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - With both sides in the U.S. presidential election dueling in court over rules and procedures ahead of the Nov. 3 vote, Democrats scored a victory on Monday when the U.S. Supreme Court left in place a ruling that extended the deadline for counting mail-in ballots in the battleground state of Pennsylvania.

But Trump's re-election campaign and the Republican National Committee have also notched important wins, including a recent ruling in Texas limiting voters' ability to correct rejected mail-in ballots.

The coronavirus pandemic has prompted hundreds of lawsuits over how people can cast their ballot. Americans, fearing the novel coronavirus, are expected to vote by mail in record numbers.

Below are some of the biggest victories so far for Trump and his Democratic challenger Joe Biden.



The Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled on Sept. 17 that officials in the closely contested state can accept mail-in ballots three days after the Nov. 3 election, so long as they were postmarked by Election Day.

The U.S. Supreme Court, in a 4-4 decision, said on Monday it would leave that decision in place, turning away an appeal by the state Republican Party and Republican officials.

Republicans did prevail on one key issue at Pennsylvania's high court. Interpreting a state law, the court said officials must throw out "naked ballots" — ballots that arrive without inner "secrecy envelopes."

Republicans argued the secrecy sleeves help deter fraud. Democrats have warned the ruling could lead to more than 100,000 votes being thrown out.


Drop boxes have become a partisan flash point, with Democrats promoting them as a safe option for voters unnerved by the COVID-19 pandemic and U.S. Postal Service delivery problems. Republican officials and Trump's campaign have argued without evidence that the boxes could enable voting fraud.

On Oct. 10, U.S. District Judge Nicholas Ranjan in Pittsburgh, a Trump appointee, rejected a bid by the Trump campaign and Republican Party to limit the use of drop boxes in Pennsylvania.

Ranjan wrote that the plaintiffs failed to prove a risk of voter fraud. "At most, they have pieced together a sequence of uncertain assumptions."


Democrats scored a win in Texas on Oct. 15 when a judge lifted an order by Republican Governor Greg Abbott limiting counties to a single location for mail ballot drop off sites. That order is on hold while it is being appealed.

State court judge Tim Sulak, who sits in Austin, said Abbott's order would "increase risks of exposure to COVID-19 infections" and "substantially burden voters' constitutionally protected rights to vote."

Sulak's ruling is being reviewed by an appeals court.



A federal appeals court on Monday said Texas does not have to give voters a chance to correct mail-in ballots that are rejected because the signature does not match the one on file with the state.

The 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals halted a lower court order that gave voters an opportunity to correct, or “cure,” the defect.

The ruling came in a lawsuit brought by a voting rights group against Republican Party officials in Texas, a longtime Republican stronghold that may be up for grabs this year.


On Oct. 8 the Texas Supreme Court ruled that officials in the state's most populous county, a Democratic stronghold that includes Houston, cannot send out unsolicited applications for mail-in ballots to its 2.4 million registered voters.

Unlike other states, Texas limits mail-in voting to those who are 65 and older, cite a disability or illness, are in jail but otherwise eligible, or are outside the county where they are registered.

The decision was a win for Republican party officials, who said sending mail-in ballot applications to everyone in Harris County, the third most-populous county in the United States, would cause confusion and lead to voter fraud.


A federal appeals court ruled in September that Florida can require felons to pay fines, restitution and legal fees they owe before they regain their right to vote.

By a 6-4 vote, the U.S. 11th Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a lower court ruling that the measure amounted to an unconstitutional poll tax. Five of the six judges in the majority were appointed by Trump.

Ex-felons in Florida are more likely to register as Democrats, according to an analysis published this month by the Tampa Bay Times, Miami Herald and ProPublica.

Nearly 900,000 Floridians with felony convictions will be unable to vote in the election because of the decision, according to an Oct. 14 study by the Sentencing Project, a criminal justice reform group.


Wisconsin election officials cannot count absentee ballots that arrive after the Nov. 3 election, a federal appeals court ruled on Oct. 8.

Democrats had argued that ballots postmarked by Election Day that arrive up to six days later should be tallied, saying such a policy would protect the right to vote amid a surge in mail-in ballots because of the coronavirus pandemic.

The U.S. 7th Circuit Court of Appeals held that it was too close to Election Day to make significant modifications to the voting process.

In a scathing dissent, one judge denounced the decision as a "travesty" and said thousands of people would lose their right to vote.

An appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court is pending.


A Michigan appeals court ruled on Oct. 16 that ballots received after 8 p.m. on Nov. 3 cannot be counted, reversing a ruling by a state court judge in Detroit and changing the battleground state's voting rules just over two weeks before the election.

The judge in Detroit had said Michigan voters should have their ballots counted for up to 14 days following Nov. 3., so long as they were postmarked by Nov. 2.

(Reporting by Jan Wolfe; Editing by Noeleen Walder, Daniel Wallis and Aurora Ellis)