Western Europe's biggest countries are continuing to grapple with spikes in coronavirus cases that brought the second wave of the disease.
And it means they're rolling out fresh batches of restrictions to curb the spread.
Italy made it mandatory to wear face masks outdoors nationwide on Wednesday (October 7) as new infections jumped to the highest daily tally since April.
Italy was the first European country to be hit hard by COVID-19.
And after enforcing one of the strictest lockdowns in the world, the government managed to control the contagion.
Now - although infections are rising - it still has far fewer daily cases than France, Spain, and Britain.
Germany on the other hand - managed to keep cases and deaths low early on compared to its neighbors.
But it has seen also seen a spike in infections this week.
In response, ministers set out emergency measures to clamp down on domestic tourism.
Berlin - known for its thriving party scene and financial hub Frankfurt have imposed a curfew on evening entertainment.
And with colder weather driving people indoors throughout the continent, new cases have also spiraled in Belgium and France.
Following in France’s footsteps - bars and cafes in Brussels are being forced to close for a month from Thursday.
This comes after the Belgian capital overtook Paris in terms of COVID-19 infections per inhabitant.
Out of the European Union's 27 capital cities, Brussels is second only to Madrid.
This week Spain became the first Western European nation to surpass 800,000 total coronavirus cases.
The central government enforced a partial lockdown of the infection hotspot and capital Madrid.
But this was followed by little enforcement and a court appeal from regional authorities who say the decision had no legal basis.