Bolivia's interim government on Friday accused Evo Morales of "sedition and terrorism" after the ex-president called on supporters to maintain blockades in the crisis-hit country.
Interior Minister Arturo Murillo filed the complaint with federal prosecutors in La Paz, which has been choked by road blocks for weeks.
"We are seeking the maximum penalty for sedition and terrorism," Murillo told reporters after filing the complaint.
Bolivia abolished the death penalty in the 1970s. It is still technically available for treason, although the country's last execution was in 1974.
Bolivia has been rocked by unrest and blockades since the disputed October 20 election that Morales claimed he won, but opposition groups said was rigged.
Morales fled to Mexico after resigning on November 10. He has since accused Bolivian security forces of engaging in "genocide" against his indigenous supporters.
Friday's move comes after Murillo played a telephone recording to journalists on Wednesday, allegedly of Morales issuing instructions to a leader of the opposition movement in Bolivia.
"Don't let food into the cities, we're going to block, really encircle (the cities)," says the voice Murillo attributed to Morales.