The decree states that health personnel may not call strikes during the pandemic emergency period, and permits the hiring of foreign medical personnel.
The Bolivian health union says the emergency law should be repealed, claiming it is unconstitutional and restricts the right to protest.
Health workers said that during the national strike they will not suspend care for COVID-19 patients and emergency services.
Protests by doctors and nurses are being carried out across the country amid a second wave of coronavirus cases that has pummelled its ailing healthcare system, pushing many hospitals to the brink of collapse.
Bolivia has reported 239,534 infections and 11,353 deaths from COVID-19 since the outbreak began.