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The incident on Tuesday sparked street protests in Ohio's largest city hours after a Minneapolis jury convicted a white former police officer there of murdering George Floyd last year by kneeling on his neck.
Authorities declined to name the girl. But family members and Franklin County Children Services have identified her as Ma'Khia Bryant, aged 16.
The officer who opened fire was not identified but appears from the video to be white. The chief said he "would be taken off the street" pending an investigation.
In a rare move, Columbus police released body-camera video of Tuesday's shooting hours after it occurred.
The interim police chief, Michael Woods, said the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI) had opened an inquiry into the case, which began when officers responded at 4:44 p.m. ET (2044 GMT) to an emergency-911 call from someone who reported an attempted stabbing at a home on the city's southeast side.
A spokesman for the Ohio BCI confirmed on Wednesday that an investigation was under way.