Biden pressed Putin on a number of issues, including alleged election interference in the 2020 election, Ukraine sovereignty, the massive SolarWinds cyber hack, and Navalny.
Psaki repeated previously stated comments that Biden did not hold back in conveying his concerns about the actions of the Russian government during the call.
She also said that a review of a number of "concerning" actions by Russia is currently underway, and that Biden reserves the right to respond to Russia "in the manner of his choosing and the time of his choosing".
Earlier this week, a White House statement said the two leaders agreed to have their teams work urgently to complete the extension of the New START arms control pact between the United States and Russia by Feb. 5, when the current deal expires.
The arms control treaty limits the United States and Russia to deploying no more than 1,550 strategic nuclear warheads each.
The details about the phone call and what was discussed come at a time when Biden is adjusting U.S. policy in a more robust way toward Russia after predecessor Donald Trump refused to take on Putin directly.