The 76-second clip shows three women - identified as Yelena Trupanob, Danielle Aloni and Rimon Kirsht - sitting side by side against a wall, with Aloni urging the prime minister to make a deal for the release of all captives.
Hamas killed 1,400 people across southern Israel and kidnapped 230 hostages during its rampage earlier this month.
In a stinging attack believed to have been made under duress, Aloni rebukes Mr Netanyahu by accusing him of failing to protect Israeli citizens.
"You were supposed to free all of us. You committed to free us all. But instead we are carrying your political, security, military, diplomatic failure," she said.
She berates Mr Netanyahu for “making a mess” on October 7, citing the amount of time it took the army to reach those under siege.
In an impassioned plea, she added: “Free us, free us now. Free their citizens. Free their prisoners. Free us. Free all of us.”
In response to the video, Mr Netanyahu released a statement pledging to make every effort to bring all hostages home.
"Abducted by Hamas, which is committing war crimes, I embrace you. Our hearts are with you and with the other captives. We are doing everything to bring home all the captives and the missing," he said.
Hamas has released four civilian hostages so far following mediation efforts from Qatari officials.